Magnitud imaginaria (Impedimenta) (Spanish Edition)
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People who viewed this also viewed. Add to basket. By this law majestas became the subject of a quaestio perpetua Cic. Sulla, 2.
Cornelio Sulla legislatore, pp. Lastly, there. This Lex Julia is by some attributed to C. Julius, and assigned to the year B. That a Lex de majestate was passed in Caesar's time appears from Cicero Philipp. Like many other leges, the Lex Julia was modified by senatusconsulta and imperial constitutions; and we must not conclude from the title in the Digest ZYZ Dig. The offences comprised under the head of crimen majestatis may be divided into two heads: 1 Attacks against the public security generally; and 2 treason specially directed against the person of the emperor.
Under the Empire the term majestas was applied to the person of the reigning Caesar, and we find the phrases majestas Augusta, imperatoria, and regia.
It was, however, nothing new to apply the term to the emperor, considered in some of his capacities, for it was applied to the magistratus under the Republic, as to the consul and praetor Cic. Horace even addresses Augustus Ep. It was by the extension of the crime of majestas that the emperors first raised themselves above the ordinary law. They were not content with the protection which the Lex Cornelia had given to magistrates by making it treason to kill, or perhaps even to attempt to kill them; but the most trivial acts of disrespect to the emperor's person or authority became treasonable in course of time.
Augustus availed himself of the Lex Julia for prosecuting the authors of famosi libelli cognitionem de famosis libellis, specie legis ejus, tractavit, Tac. The proper inference from the passage of Tacitus is that the Lex Julia did not properly apply to words or writings, for these were punishable otherwise. Under Tiberius the offence of majestas was extended to all acts and words which might seem to be disrespectful to the Princeps, as appears from various passages in Tacitus ZYY Tac.
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It was treason to do anything which could possibly be construed as disrespectful to the statues of the emperor. It is stated by Marcianus, as cited in the Digest, that it was not majestas to repair the statues of the Caesar which were going to decay; and a rescript of Severus and his son Antoninus Caracalla declared that, if a stone was thrown and accidentally struck a statue of the emperor, that also was not majestas; and they also graciously declared that it was not majestas to sell the statues of the Caesar before they were consecrated.
In the time of Tiberius it was a matter of charge against a man that in selling a garden he had included a statue of Augustus; which Tiberius declared to be no offence Tac. There is also an extract from Saturninus, de Judiciis, who says that if a person melted down the statues or imagines of the emperor, which were already consecrated, or did any similar act, he was liable to the penalties of the Lex Julia majestatis.
Augustus wished to treat an act of adultery with a female member of the imperial family as treason; but it was declared by Tiberius that this was not the law Tac. The violation of an oath which a person had sworn by the Genius or Salus of the emperor was included in the crimen majestatis. The assumption by a private person of a divine as well as of a regal title of honour made him subject to the law of treason Mommsen, op. It was sufficient to constitute treason that a treasonable act should have been begun, but a mere intention to commit the offence without any overt act was not treason.
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An inquiry might be made into an act of treason against the Imperator even after the death of the offender Cod. Aurelius in the case of Druncianus or Druncanius, a senator who had taken part in the outbreak of Cassius, and whose property was claimed by the fiscus after his death. Perhaps the account of Capitolinus M.
On the case of Druncanius, see Tillemont, Histoire des Empereurs, vol. Women were admitted as evidence in a case of laesa majestas, and the case of Fulvia is cited as an instance. The torture was only applicable generally to slaves and not to freemen, but it is provided that, in case of treason against the emperor, all persons should be in the same position as slaves in respect of liability to torture. Tiberius sold a man's slaves to the actor publicus Ann. The crime of majestas was punished with increasing severity under the Empire.
The old punishment was perpetual interdiction from fire and water; but now, says Paulus S. The property of the offender was confiscated and his memory was infamous damnatio memoriae. A constitution of S. Severus and Antoninus Caracalla declared dared that from the time that an act of majestas was committed a man could not alienate his property or manumit a slave, to which the great magnus Antoninus probably Caracalla is still meant added that a debtor could not after that time lawfully make a payment to him.
Recht, p. No doubt the law was no enactment of the Roman comitia, but was bestowed on Malaga by Domitian, between the years A. Along with the Lex Salpensana, which was excavated at the same time and place, it throws considerable light on the institutions and organisation of the Latin municipia, and on some purely legal topics, such as the cautio praedibus praediisque.
First published by R. A hammer, a mallet, was used much for the same purposes in ancient as in modern times. In Latin, while malleus is the general term, marcus is specially used for the heavy smith's hammer, and marcellus, marculus for smaller varieties Isid. When several [unresolved image link] The forge of Vulcan.
From a bas-relief. The scene which he describes is represented in the above woodcut, taken from an ancient bas-relief, in which Vulcan, Brontes, and Steropes are seen forging the metal, while the third Cyclops, Pyracmon, blows the bellows Aen. Another remarkable production of the same kind was the golden statue of Jupiter Strabo, 8. Justini, 4. To be distinguished from the above is malleolus, a sort of rocket, having lighted tow and pitch attached to one end, which was thrown in sieges and in naval warfare. Its name is probably derived from malleolus, the shoot of a plant, or else because the head with the tow attached was compared to a hammer.